Презентация, доклад Radiation


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RadiationDefinition of Radiation
 “Radiation is an energy in the form ofForces: There are many interactions among nuclei. It turns out thatBasic Model of a Neutral Atom.
 Electrons (-) orbiting nucleus ofRadioactivity
 If a nucleus is unstable for any reason, it willThe electro-magnetic waves vary in their length and frequency along aTypes of Radiation
 Radiation is classified into:
 Ionizing radiation
 Non-ionizing radiationIonizing Radiation
 Definition: 
   “ It is a typeAnother DefinitionAlpha Particles (or Alpha Radiation): Helium nucleus (2 neutrons and 2Beta Particles: High speed electron ejected from nucleus; -1 charge, lightX- and Gamma Rays: X-rays are photons (Electromagnetic radiations) emitted fromQUANTIFICATION OF RADIATION
 A. Quantifying Radioactive Decay 
 B. Quantifying ExposureA. Quantifying Radioactive Decay
 Measurement of Activity in disintegrations per secondB. Quantifying Exposure and Dose
 Exposure: Roentgen 1 Roentgen (R) =Exposure Limits
 OSHA Limits: Whole body limit = 1.25 rem/qtr orCommunity Emergency Radiation
 Hazardous Waste Sites: 
 Radiation above background (0.01-0.02HEALTH EFFECTS 
 Generalizations: Biological effects are due to the ionizationDelayed Somatic Effects: Delayed effects to exposed person include: Cancer, leukemia,Critical Organs: Organs generally most susceptible to radiation damage include: Lymphocytes,Non-ionizing Radiation
 Definition:
 “ They are electromagnetic waves incapable of producingAll earth surface system components emit radiation---the sun and the earthOther Manmade Sources of Non-Ionizing RadiationEffects 
 Radiofrequency Ranges (10 kHz to 300 GHz)
 
 EffectsRADIATION CONTROLS
 A. Basic Control Methods for External Radiation 
 DecreaseTime: Minimize time of exposure to minimize total dose. Rotate employeesB. Monitoring 
 Personal Dosimeters: Normally they do not prevent exposuresDirect Reading Survey Meters and Counters: Useful in identifying source ofContinuous Monitors: Continuous direct reading ionization detectors (same detectors as above)Elements of Radiation Protection Program 
 Monitoring of exposures: Personal, area,Thank You



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Radiation


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Definition of Radiation “Radiation is an energy in the form of electro-magnetic waves or particulate matter, traveling in the air.”

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Forces: There are many interactions among nuclei. It turns out that there are forces other than the electromagnetic force and the gravitational force which govern the interactions among nuclei. Forces: There are many interactions among nuclei. It turns out that there are forces other than the electromagnetic force and the gravitational force which govern the interactions among nuclei. Einstein in 1905m showed 2 more laws: energy/mass, and binding energy

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Basic Model of a Neutral Atom. Electrons (-) orbiting nucleus of protons (+) and neutrons. Same number of electrons as protons; net charge = 0. Atomic number (number of protons) determines element.  Mass number (protons + neutrons)

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Radioactivity If a nucleus is unstable for any reason, it will emit and absorb particles. There are many types of radiation and they are all pertinent to everyday life and health as well as nuclear physical applications.

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The electro-magnetic waves vary in their length and frequency along a very wide spectrum.

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Types of Radiation Radiation is classified into: Ionizing radiation Non-ionizing radiation

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Ionizing Radiation Definition: “ It is a type of radiation that is able to disrupt atoms and molecules on which they pass through, giving rise to ions and free radicals”.

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Another Definition

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Alpha Particles (or Alpha Radiation): Helium nucleus (2 neutrons and 2 protons); +2 charge; heavy (4 AMU).  Typical Energy = 4-8 MeV; Limited range (<10cm in air; 60µm in tissue); High LET (QF=20) causing heavy damage (4K-9K ion pairs/µm in tissue). Easily shielded (e.g., paper, skin) so an internal radiation hazard. Eventually lose too much energy to ionize; become He.

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Beta Particles: High speed electron ejected from nucleus; -1 charge, light 0.00055 AMU; Typical Energy = several KeV to 5 MeV; Range approx. 12'/MeV in air, a few mm in tissue; Low LET (QF=1) causing light damage (6-8 ion pairs/µm in tissue). Primarily an internal hazard, but high beta can be an external hazard to skin.   In addition, the high speed electrons may lose energy in the form of X-rays when they quickly decelerate upon striking a heavy material. This is called Bremsstralung (or Breaking) Radiation.   Aluminum and other light (<14) materials are used for shielding.

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X- and Gamma Rays: X-rays are photons (Electromagnetic radiations) emitted from electron orbits. Gamma rays are photons emitted from the nucleus, often as part of radioactive decay. Gamma rays typically have higher energy (Mev's) than X-rays (KeV's), but both are unlimited.

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QUANTIFICATION OF RADIATION A. Quantifying Radioactive Decay B. Quantifying Exposure and Dose

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A. Quantifying Radioactive Decay Measurement of Activity in disintegrations per second (dps); 1 Becquerel (Bq) = 1 dps; 1 Curie (Ci) = 3.7 x 1010 dps; Activity of substances are expressed as activity per weight or volume (e.g., Bq/gm or Ci/l).

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B. Quantifying Exposure and Dose Exposure: Roentgen 1 Roentgen (R) = amount of X or gamma radiation that produces ionization resulting in 1 electrostatic unit of charge in 1 cm3 of dry air.  Instruments often measure exposure rate in mR/hr. Absorbed Dose: rad (Roentgen absorbed dose) = absorption of 100 ergs of energy from any radiation in 1 gram of any material; 1 Gray (Gy) = 100 rads = 1 Joule/kg; Exposure to 1 Roentgen approximates 0.9 rad in air. Biologically Equivalent Dose: Rem (Roentgen equivalent man) = dose in rads x QF, where QF = quality factor. 1 Sievert (Sv) = 100 rems.

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Exposure Limits OSHA Limits: Whole body limit = 1.25 rem/qtr or 5 rem (50 mSv) per year. Hands and feet limit = 18.75 rem/qtr. Skin of whole body limit = 7.5 rem/qtr. Total life accumulation = 5 x (N-18) rem where N = age. Can have 3 rem/qtr if total life accumulation not exceeded. Note: New recommendations reduce the 5 rem to 2 rem.

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Community Emergency Radiation Hazardous Waste Sites: Radiation above background (0.01-0.02 m rem/hr) signifies possible presence which must be monitored. Radiation above 2 m rem/hr indicates potential hazard. Evacuate site until controlled.

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HEALTH EFFECTS Generalizations: Biological effects are due to the ionization process that destroys the capacity for cell reproduction or division or causes cell mutation. A given total dose will cause more damage if received in a shorter time period. A fatal dose is (600 R) Acute Somatic Effects: Relatively immediate effects to a person acutely exposed. Severity depends on dose. Death usually results from damage to bone marrow or intestinal wall. Acute radio-dermatitis is common in radiotherapy; chronic cases occur mostly in industry.

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Delayed Somatic Effects: Delayed effects to exposed person include: Cancer, leukemia, cataracts, life shortening from organ failure, and abortion. Probability of an effect is proportional to dose (no threshold). Severity is independent of dose. Doubling dose for cancer is approximately 10-100 rems. Genetic Effects: Genetic effects to off-spring of exposed persons are irreversible and nearly always harmful. Doubling dose for mutation rate is approximately 50-80 rems. (Spontaneous mutation rate is approx. 10-100 mutations per million population per generation.)

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Critical Organs: Organs generally most susceptible to radiation damage include: Lymphocytes, bone marrow, gastro-intestinal, gonads, and other fast-growing cells. The central nervous system is relatively resistant. Many nuclides concentrate in certain organs rather than being uniformly distributed over the body, and the organs may be particularly sensitive to radiation damage, e.g., isotopes of iodine concentrate in the thyroid gland. These organs are considered "critical" for the specific nuclide.

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Non-ionizing Radiation Definition: “ They are electromagnetic waves incapable of producing ions while passing through matter, due to their lower energy.”

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All earth surface system components emit radiation---the sun and the earth are the components we are most interested in The sun emits radiation composed of high energy infrared radiation, visible light, and ultraviolet radiation collectively known as shortwave radiation (SW) The earth emits radiation composed of lower energy infrared radiation collectively known as long-wave radiation (LW)

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Other Manmade Sources of Non-Ionizing Radiation

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Effects Radiofrequency Ranges (10 kHz to 300 GHz) Effects only possible at ten times the permissible exposure limit Heating of the body (thermal effect) Cataracts Some studies show effects of teratoginicity and carcinogenicity.

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RADIATION CONTROLS A. Basic Control Methods for External Radiation Decrease Time Increase Distance Increase Shielding

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Time: Minimize time of exposure to minimize total dose. Rotate employees to restrict individual dose. Distance: Maximize distance to source to maximize attenuation in air. The effect of distance can be estimated from equations. Shielding: Minimize exposure by placing absorbing shield between worker and source.  

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B. Monitoring Personal Dosimeters: Normally they do not prevent exposures (no alarm), just record it. They can provide a record of accumulated exposure for an individual worker over extended periods of time (hours, days or weeks), and are small enough for measuring localized exposures Common types: Film badges; Thermoluminescence detectors (TLD); and pocket dosimeters.

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Direct Reading Survey Meters and Counters: Useful in identifying source of exposures recorded by personal dosimeters, and in evaluating potential sources, such as surface or sample contamination, source leakage, inadequate decontamination procedures, background radiation. Common types:   Alpha  Proportional or Scintillation counters Beta, gamma  Geiger-Mueller or Proportional counters X-ray, Gamma  Ionization chambers Neutrons  Proportional counters

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Continuous Monitors: Continuous direct reading ionization detectors (same detectors as above) can provide read-out and/or alarm to monitor hazardous locations and alert workers to leakage, thereby preventing exposures. Long-Term Samplers: Used to measure average exposures over a longer time period. For example, charcoal canisters or electrets are set out for days to months to measure radon in basements (should be <4 pCi/L).

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Elements of Radiation Protection Program Monitoring of exposures: Personal, area, and screening measurements; Medical/biologic monitoring. Task-Specific Procedures and Controls: Initial, periodic, and post-maintenance or other non-scheduled events. Engineering (shielding) vs. PPE vs. administrative controls. Including management and employee commitment and authority to enforce procedures and controls. Emergency procedures: Response, "clean-up", post clean-up testing and spill control. Training and Hazard Communications including signs, warning lights, lockout/tagout, etc. Criteria for need, design, and information given. Material Handling: Receiving, inventory control, storage, and disposal.

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Thank You


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