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Literature Расторгуева Т.А. История английского языка. – М.: Астрель, 2005. – С. 124-147. Ильиш Б.А. История английского языка. – Л.: Просвещение, 1972. – С. 56-63, 114-132. Иванова И.П., Чахоян Л.П. История английского языка. – М.: Высшая школа, 1976. – С.216-231, 239-256. Студенець Г.І. Історія англійської мови в таблицях. - К.: КДЛУ, 1998. – Tables 55-60
OE was a highly synthetic language. It had a well-developed system of grammatical forms, which indicate the connection between words. It was originally a spoken language; therefore the written forms of the language resembled oral speech – unless the texts were literal translations from Latin. Consequently, the syntax of the sentence was relatively simple. Coordination of clauses prevailed over subordination and complicated syntactical structures were rare.
The WO in the OE sentence was relatively The WO in the OE sentence was relatively free. The position of words in the sentence was often determined by logical and stylistic factors rather than by grammatical constraints. - Direct WO; - Inverted WO; - Synthetic WO. The WO could depend on the communicative type of the sentence (? vs. statement); on the type of clause; on the presence and place of some secondary parts of the sentence.
Inverted WO was used for grammatical purposes in questions: Inverted WO was used for grammatical purposes in questions: Full inversion with simple predicates. Partial inversion – with compound predicates (containing link-verbs and modal verbs) Eart þu Esau, mīn sunu? (Are U Isau, my son?) Hū mihtest þu hit swā hrædlice findan? (How could you find it so quickly?) If the sentence began with an adverbial modifier, the WO was usually inverted. Hēr on þyssum ʒēare fōr sē micla here – In this year went that big army.
Synthetic WO (“framing structure”) is found in many subordinate and some coordinate clauses. The clause begins with the subject and ends with the predicate (or its final part). All the secondary parts are enclosed between them. Synthetic WO (“framing structure”) is found in many subordinate and some coordinate clauses. The clause begins with the subject and ends with the predicate (or its final part). All the secondary parts are enclosed between them. Ohthere sæde his hlaforde, Ælfrede cyninge, þæt he ealra Norðmonna norþmest bude. (Othere said to his lord, King Alfred, that he lived northernmost of all the Northmen (or Norwegians). But He cwæþ þæt he bude on þæm lande (He said that he lived in the land). It appears that in many respects the OE syntax was characterized by a wide range of variation and by the co-existence of various, even opposing tendencies.
Compound and complex sentences. Compound and complex sentences. Words had formal markers for Gender, Case, Number, Person. As compared with later periods agreement and government played an important role in the word phrase. The presence of formal markers made it possible to miss out some parts of the sentence, which is obligatory in an English sentence now. The subject may be missed but the form of the predicate shows that the action is performed by the same person as the preceding action. The subject was lacking in many impersonal sentences. Him þuhte (it seemed to him). Norþan snýwde (it snowed in the north), though it was present in others. Hit haʒolade stānum (it hailed with stones).
What kind of syntactic relations What kind of syntactic relations existed in OE? Agreement - the subordinate word assumes a form similar to the head word. Se blinda man (dem. pr. + adj. + noun in Nom. Sing.) Þam blindum mannum (Dat., Plur.). Government – when the subordinate word is used in a certain form required by its head word. The form of the subordinate word does not coincide with the form of the head word. Hwāles bān (whale’s bone) – the noun in the Gen. Case. Ohthere sæde his hlaforde (said to his lord) – the pers. pronoun, Acc. Case. Hū mihtest þu swā hrædlice findan? Joining (absence of both: A. and G.) swīðe mycel (adv. + adj.)
Complex sentences consist of 2 or more clauses conjoined. In OE, there are many types of complex sentence types: subject, object, attributive and adverbial clauses. Complex sentences consist of 2 or more clauses conjoined. In OE, there are many types of complex sentence types: subject, object, attributive and adverbial clauses. The clauses were introduced by the following conjunctions : þæt (that), ʒif (if), etc. E.g. He cwæþ þæt he bude on þæm lande (He said that he lived in the land).
Negation Negation in simple sentences (sentence negation) in OE is expressed by the preverbal adverb ne, which precedes the finite verb. Ac hie ne dorston þær on cuman (but they didn’t dare enter there). Especially in WS, ne can be optionally attached to a small set of verbs. wolde > nolde, willan > nillan habban > nabban = ne + habban He nolde beon cyninʒ wes (be) > nes, wit (knew) > nit The negated verb is usually in the initial position of the main clause. The number of negative words in a sentence was not limited. E.g. nān man ne būde benorðan him (no man lived north of him)
The major differences between OE and PDE: Different WO patterns (SVO vs. SOV). In main clauses the verb is typically in non-final position, in subordinate clauses – in final position. There was no auxiliary verb DO in OE. Multiple Negation is frequent. A Grammatical Subject is not obligatory in OE. And him ðæs sceamode (He was ashamed of that …).
OE Vocabulary (Words of CIE, CG Origin, loan-words). Native OE words can be subdivided into a number of layers: 1) WORDS OF COMMON INDO-EUROPEAN ORIGIN The Common IE layer includes words which form the oldest part of the OE vocabulary. They go back to the days of the IE parent-language before its extension over the wide territories of Europe and Asia before the appearance of the Germanic group. They were inherited by PG and passed into the Germanic languages.
Among these words we find names of Among these words we find names of some natural phenomena: mere (sea), mōna (moon), niht (night) plants: trēow (tree) animals: eolh (elk) agricultural terms: sāwan (sow) parts of the human body: næʒl (nail), tunʒe (tongue), fōt (foot), hēorte (heart) terms of kinship: broðor, mōdor, sunu. verbs that denote the basic activities of a man: dōn, bēon, sittan, licʒan, beran. adjectives that indicate the most essential qualities: nīwe, lonʒ, ʒeonʒ. personal and demonstrative pronouns and most numerals: twā, þæt, mīn, ic.
2) WORDS OF COMMON GERMANIC ORIGIN This layer includes words which are shared by most Germanic languages, do not occur outside the group. This layer is smaller than the layer of CIE words (1:2). CG words originated in the common period of Germanic history i.e. in PG when the Teutonic tribes lived close together. Semantically these words are connected with nature with the sea and everyday life (hand, sand, eorþe, sinʒan, findan, ʒrēne, macian, finger, cealf, land, earm).
3) SPECIFICALLY OE WORDS 3) SPECIFICALLY OE WORDS This layer of native words can be defined as specifically OE, that is words which do not occur in other Germanic / Non-Germanic languages. These words are few… Clipian (to call), brid (bird), wimman, hlāford [hlaf + weard (keeper)], hlāf + diʒe, diʒan (to knead) > NE lady (bread-kneading) LOAN WORDS The OE vocabulary, like that of any other language, developed in two ways: - by forming new words from elements existing in the language; - by taking over words from other languages. OE borrowings come from 2 sources: Celtic and Latin.
CELTIC (mostly found in place-names) CELTIC (mostly found in place-names) There are very few Celtic borrowings in the OE vocabulary for there must have been little intermixture between the Germanic settlers and the Celts in Britain. The OE kingdoms (Kent, Deira, Bernicia) derive their names of Celtic tribes. York, Downs, London have been traced to Celtic sources. Various Celtic designations of water and river were understood by Germanic tribes as proper names (Thames, Avon, Dover, Ouse).
LATIN Latin words entered the English Language at different stages of OE history; chronologically they are divided into several layers: 1. Continental Borrowings (Latin Influence of the Zero Period). The first Latin words appeared in the English language due to the early contact between the Romans and the Germanic tribes on the continent. Early borrowings from Latin indicate the new things and concepts, which the Teutons had learnt from the Romans.
LATIN units of measurement: OE pund (lat. pondo), ynce (inch -2,54, Lat uncia) articles of trade: OE mynet (coin), mynetian (to coin), cēapian (to trade), ceap (deal) agricultural products: OE wīn (Lat. vinum), plume (Lat. prunus), pipor (Lat. piper), butter, cīese a group of words relating to domestic life: cytel (kettle), disc (dish), cuppe (cup), pyle (pillow) to building: cealc (chalk), tiʒele (tile), coper (copper) to military affairs: mīl (mile), (Lat. millia passuum) OE weall (wall, Lat. vallum) a wall ;
2. Latin through Celtic Transmission (Latin Influence of the 1st Period). Britain was Romanized. There was no opportunity for direct contact between Latin and Old English in England, and Latin words could have found their way into English through Celtic transmission. The Celts, indeed, had adopted a considerable number of Latin words. - Some place –names or components of place-names: Lat. Castra – OE caster, ceaster (camp): Chester, Lancaster Lat. Vicus (a village): Norwich, Woolwich
3. Latin Influence of the 2nd Period: The Christianizing of Britain. The greatest influence of Latin upon Old English was caused by the introduction of Christianity into Britain in the 6th c. words connected with religion; words connected with learning. OE apostol (apostle), antefn (anthem), biscop (bishop), candel (candle), temple, psalm. The spread of education led to the wider use of Latin teaching was conducted in Latin: OE scōl (school), OE scōlere (scholar), OE māʒister (master), In LOE many new words were coined from native elements acc. to Latin models as translation-loans: OE tunʒolcræft (NE astronomy, Lat. astronomos), OE ʒoldsmiþ (NE goldsmith, Lat. aurifex), OE Mōnan-dæʒ (Monday, lit. day of the moon, Lat. Lunae dies).
Word formation in OE According to their morphological structure OE words fell into 3 main types: simple words with no derivational suffixes: land, sinʒan, ʒōd; derived words consisting of one root-morpheme and one or more affixes: be-ʒinnan, un-scyld-iʒ (innocent); compound words, whose stems were made up of more than one root-morpheme mann-cynn (mankind), norþe-weard (northward), fēower-tīene (14), scir-ʒe-refa (sheriff).
In LPG the morphological structure of a word was simplified. By the age of writing many derived words had lost their stem-forming suffixes and had turned into simple words. In LPG the morphological structure of a word was simplified. By the age of writing many derived words had lost their stem-forming suffixes and had turned into simple words. The loss of stem-suffixes as means of word-formation stimulated the growth of other means of word formation. OE employed two ways of word-formation: derivation, word composition. Derived words in OE were built with the help of affixes: prefixes and suffixes. In addition to these principal means of derivation words were distinguished with the help of sound interchanges and word stress. Sound interchanges in the roots of related words were frequent. Sound interchanges were never used alone; they were combined with suffixation. Genetically, sound interchanges go back to different sources, periods.
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