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KYIV NATIONAL LINGUISTIC UNIVERSITY Subota S.V. LECTURE 3 OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR. THE NOMINAL SYSTEM.

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Plan General Characteristics of OE Grammar. The Noun. Its Grammatical Categories Noun Declensions. The Adjective. Morphological categories of the Adjective. Strong and Weak Declensions of Adjectives. Degrees of Comparison. The Pronoun. Classes of Pronouns. The Adverb


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Literature Расторгуева Т.А. История английского языка. – М.: Астрель, 2005. – С. 92-108. Ильиш Б.А. История английского языка. – Л.: Просвещение, 1972. – С. 63-86. Иванова И.П., Чахоян Л.П. История английского языка. – М.: Высшая школа, 1976. – С. 98-135. Студенець Г.І. Історія англійської мови в таблицях. - К.: КДЛУ, 1998. – Tables 40-46

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OE was a synthetic language, though the synthetic grammatical forms (built with the help of suffixes, prefixes, sound alternation and on the basis of suppletive formations) were less numerous than in PIE. OE was a synthetic language, though the synthetic grammatical forms (built with the help of suffixes, prefixes, sound alternation and on the basis of suppletive formations) were less numerous than in PIE. The analytical grammatical forms (built with the help of auxiliary verbs, auxiliary words, changes of stress and on the basis of the word-order) were practically absent.

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There were 5 declinable parts of speech in OE: the Noun, the Adjective, the Pronoun, the Numeral and the Participle. There were 5 declinable parts of speech in OE: the Noun, the Adjective, the Pronoun, the Numeral and the Participle. The nominal paradigm in OE was characterized by the following grammatical categories:

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The paradigms of different parts of speech had the same number of grammatical categories but these parts of speech were different in the number of categorial forms composing a given grammatical category. The paradigms of different parts of speech had the same number of grammatical categories but these parts of speech were different in the number of categorial forms composing a given grammatical category.

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It is necessary to mark that It is necessary to mark that the morphological classification of OE nouns is based on the most ancient (PIE) grouping of nouns according to the stem-suffixes. The existence of stem-building suffixes is found in other IE languages. They were mostly -a, -ō, -u, -i. But in Germanic languages stem-building suffixes practically are not observed, they have already merged with either the ending or the root. The loss was reinforced by the heavy Germanic stress on the root.

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On the basis of former stem-building suffixes most scholars distinguish strong and weak declensions of OE nouns. On the basis of former stem-building suffixes most scholars distinguish strong and weak declensions of OE nouns. the strong declension includes nouns with stems (-a, -ō, -i, -u) which are often called vocalic; the weak declension comprises nouns with the stem originally ending in n-stem only. There are some minor declensions (r-stems, s-stem,nd- stems) (consonantal). There is also the root-stem declension in which the ending is added not to the suffix but to the root immediately.

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It is necessary to speak about peculiar features of some declensions which have the so-called remnants in PDE. It is necessary to speak about peculiar features of some declensions which have the so-called remnants in PDE. The OE vowel a-stem declension is the most widely spread and proved to be the most stable in the history.

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The NE possessive infleсtion -‘s goes back to the -es ending of the Gen. case Sg. of masculine and neuter nouns of a-stem declension. The NE possessive infleсtion -‘s goes back to the -es ending of the Gen. case Sg. of masculine and neuter nouns of a-stem declension. The plural -(e)s is the present-day survival of the OE Nom. Pl. -as of m. and n. nouns of a-stem declension.

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Another ModE survival of a-stem is the zero ending of plurals of such nouns as scēap, swīn etc. Another ModE survival of a-stem is the zero ending of plurals of such nouns as scēap, swīn etc. Neuter nouns with a long root-vowel had in the plural the zero ending (N. and Acc. Sg.: scēap; N. and Acc Pl.: scēap). The forms were of high frequency, and therefore the zero ending in both singular and plural have been preserved up to nowadays.

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A-stem nouns (1/3 of all OE nouns) may be either of masculine (m.) or neuter (n.) gender. The difference in 2 genders is only seen in the Nom., Acc. Pl. The m. nouns had -as, in the n. nouns the ending depends on the quantity of the root syllable: the short-vowel n. nouns had in plural the ending -u (N., Acc. Sg. scip; N., Acc. Pl. scipu); the long-vowel n. nouns – zero ending.

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The a-stem declension has its variants: ja-stems and wa-stems. The a-stem declension has its variants: ja-stems and wa-stems.

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There are also PDE remnants of the -n- (weak) stem. The nouns of this declension had the ending -an in five of eight possible forms (hence the name of the declension - weak). There are also PDE remnants of the -n- (weak) stem. The nouns of this declension had the ending -an in five of eight possible forms (hence the name of the declension - weak).

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The element -n- was a direct descendant of old stem-suffix. In ME -an reduced to -en and was preserved for a period of time in such nouns as oxen, cowen, herten, eyen, eren, shoen etc. Nowadays it is preserved in oxen. In children it began to be used later by analogy. The element -n- was a direct descendant of old stem-suffix. In ME -an reduced to -en and was preserved for a period of time in such nouns as oxen, cowen, herten, eyen, eren, shoen etc. Nowadays it is preserved in oxen. In children it began to be used later by analogy.

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The root stem declension stands apart from the rest: the inflections were joined not to the suffix but to the root. The root stem declension stands apart from the rest: the inflections were joined not to the suffix but to the root. The characteristic feature of this type of nouns was the original existence of the i-element in the forms of the D. Sg. (e.g. manni and also in the N. and Acc. Pl. manniz).

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It is not visible in OE because the endings were lost earlier. Due to /-i/ the root vowel underwent i-Umlaut and these forms became men. Other nouns of this class are: tōð (tooth), fōt (foot), bōc (book), āc (oak) etc. It is not visible in OE because the endings were lost earlier. Due to /-i/ the root vowel underwent i-Umlaut and these forms became men. Other nouns of this class are: tōð (tooth), fōt (foot), bōc (book), āc (oak) etc.

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This group was not numerous, but the words belonging to it were characterized by high frequency of use: they were often used in everyday speech, therefore less subjected to changes. This group was not numerous, but the words belonging to it were characterized by high frequency of use: they were often used in everyday speech, therefore less subjected to changes. This specific feature explains the vowel interchange within the roots of such nouns as foot, goose, tooth, mouse etc. in the Plural form. In NE they constitute the group of exceptions as regards the formation of plural.

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The Adjective in OE. The OE adjective was a fully declinable part of speech. It had the same categories as nouns (number, gender and case): 2 numbers, 3 genders and 5 cases. The Adjective in OE. The OE adjective was a fully declinable part of speech. It had the same categories as nouns (number, gender and case): 2 numbers, 3 genders and 5 cases. The categories of adjectives differ from the same categories of nouns: the categories of nouns are independent while the categories of adjectives are dependable upon the nouns. OE adjectives usually agree with the nouns they refer to in gender, number and case: this feature characterizes PIE and Modern Slavonic languages.

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The Adjective had two types of declensions: strong and weak. Strong adjectives had more endings opposed to each other, so these adjectives had a stronger distinctive power. Weak declension of adjectives was characterized by the ending -an, which was used in most of the forms, so a lot of weak forms were homonymous and had a weak distinctive power. The Adjective had two types of declensions: strong and weak. Strong adjectives had more endings opposed to each other, so these adjectives had a stronger distinctive power. Weak declension of adjectives was characterized by the ending -an, which was used in most of the forms, so a lot of weak forms were homonymous and had a weak distinctive power.

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The difference between the strong and the weak declension of adjectives wasn’t only formal but also semantic (strong declension was used to add the meaning of indefiniteness). The difference between the strong and the weak declension of adjectives wasn’t only formal but also semantic (strong declension was used to add the meaning of indefiniteness). Most adjectives could be declined according to both declensions. The choice of declension was determined by a number of factors: the syntactical function of the adjective and the presence of determiners. If there was a demonstrative or a possessive pronoun referring to the noun, these pronouns determined the meaning of the phrase and the adjective was weak, if there was no pronoun, the adjective was used in the strong form: e.g.: se micla here (this big army) but micel here (a big army).

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Some adjectives also changed their forms in accordance with the category of Degrees of comparison. Some adjectives also changed their forms in accordance with the category of Degrees of comparison. The regular suffix of the comparative degree was -ra, the superlative degree had mostly suffix -ost: earm – earmra – earmost. Some adjectives had changes affected by i-Umlaut in the comparative and superlative degrees: eald – ieldra- ieldest; heah – hierra – hiehst. There was a group of adjectives which had suppletive forms of the degrees of comparison: ʒod – betera – betst

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The Pronoun in OE. In OE there existed several groups of pronouns: Personal, Demonstrative, Definite, Indefinite, Negative and Relative. It can be easily seen that there was no separate group of Possessive pronouns in OE. They will be separated from the group of personal pronouns only in ME. The Pronoun in OE. In OE there existed several groups of pronouns: Personal, Demonstrative, Definite, Indefinite, Negative and Relative. It can be easily seen that there was no separate group of Possessive pronouns in OE. They will be separated from the group of personal pronouns only in ME. Personal pronouns can replace nouns; therefore they are called noun-pronouns. The paradigm of personal pronouns is extremely suppletive: it consists of many individual forms.

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Personal pronouns had the following grammatical categories: the category of Person (three persons: the first, the second and the third); the category of Number (three numbers: singular, dual and plural); the category of Case (four cases: Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative). The third person singular had the category of gender with masculine, feminine, neuter forms. In plural there was no gender differences: one form could be referred to different genders. Personal pronouns had the following grammatical categories: the category of Person (three persons: the first, the second and the third); the category of Number (three numbers: singular, dual and plural); the category of Case (four cases: Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative). The third person singular had the category of gender with masculine, feminine, neuter forms. In plural there was no gender differences: one form could be referred to different genders.

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Demonstrative pronouns. Demonstrative pronouns. If personal pronouns are often called noun-pronouns the demonstrative pronouns are called adjective-pronouns because they fulfill identical with adjectives functions and their grammatical categories are very much alike. Practically speaking there existed two demonstrative pronouns – sē (that) and ðes (this). These pronouns had many paradigmatic forms reflecting grammatical categories of gender, case, number and also the deictic (near-far) category. That is why these pronouns make up two groups based on the deictic opposition.

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They had the category of Gender (3 genders), 2 numbers, 5 cases and agreed with the nouns in number, gender and case. Demonstrative pronouns had one more grammatical category: Far-Near, pointing to objects which are near as opposed to those which are far. They had the category of Gender (3 genders), 2 numbers, 5 cases and agreed with the nouns in number, gender and case. Demonstrative pronouns had one more grammatical category: Far-Near, pointing to objects which are near as opposed to those which are far. Demonstrative pronouns played an important functional role in the grammatical system of OE, helping to differentiate homonymous forms of nouns.

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The Adverb in OE. The Adverb in OE. OE adverbs denoted specific kinds of actions expressed by the verb. Structurally, they could be primary and secondary (or derived). The latter could be derived from simple (primary) adjectives with the help of suffixes -e and –lice : heard – hearde, heardlic – heardlice. The suffix -lice of adverbs in ME will be reduced to -lic and thus will coincide in form with -lic of adjectives. That is why in ModE we have homophonic forms: adjectives and adverbs having suffix -ly.

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Some adverbs were derived from case-forms of nouns: wundrum – wundrum, dæʒ – dæʒes; from prepositional phrases: dune – of dune (down), wæʒ – of wæʒ (away). OE adjectives could form degrees of comparison with the help of suffixes -or and -ost: fæst – fæstor – fæstost. Some adjectives had i-Umlaut in the comparative and superlative degrees: lonʒ – lenʒor – lenʒost. There were also suppletive degrees of comparison: wel – betre – best and others. Some adverbs were derived from case-forms of nouns: wundrum – wundrum, dæʒ – dæʒes; from prepositional phrases: dune – of dune (down), wæʒ – of wæʒ (away). OE adjectives could form degrees of comparison with the help of suffixes -or and -ost: fæst – fæstor – fæstost. Some adjectives had i-Umlaut in the comparative and superlative degrees: lonʒ – lenʒor – lenʒost. There were also suppletive degrees of comparison: wel – betre – best and others.

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