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KYIV NATIONAL LINGUISTIC UNIVERSITY Subota S.V. LECTURE 2 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY.

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Plan Word Stress in OE. Comparison of PIE, PG and OE vowel systems. Qualitative changes within the system of vowels. Quantitative changes within the system of vowels. The system of consonants. The main processes within the system of consonants.


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Literature Расторгуева Т.А. История английского языка. – М.: Астрель, 2005. – С. 75-90. Ильиш Б.А. История английского языка. – Л.: Просвещение, 1972. – С. 44-56. Иванова И.П., Чахоян Л.П. История английского языка. – М.: Высшая школа, 1976. – С. 53-67. Студенець Г.І. Історія англійської мови в таблицях. - К.: КДЛУ, 1998. – Tables 32-39

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Word Stress in OE Word stress inherited from PG underwent no changes in OE. In EPG the stress was still movable; in LPG it became fixed on the first syllable. The OE period was characterized by a system of fixed stress. The stress was fixed on the first syllable. Due to the force of articulation the stressed and unstressed syllables underwent different changes: stressed syllables were pronounced with great distinctness and precision, while unstressed syllables became less distinct and phonetically weakened.

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In disyllabic and polysyllabic words the stress In disyllabic and polysyllabic words the stress fell on the root morpheme or on the first syllable. Word stress was fixed: it remained on the same syllable in different grammatical forms of the word and as a rule didn’t shift in word building as well. e.g. Nom. Sing. scip (ship), ʹhlaford (lord) Dat. Sing. ʹscipu, ʹhlaforde Polysyllabic words, especially compounds, may have had 2 stresses (primary and secondary). e.g. OE boc-hus (a library) The verbal prefixes were unstressed e.g. OE misʹfaran (to mislead), andʹswarian (to answer), the nominal, adjectival prefixes were stressed e.g. ʹandswaru (an answer).

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PIE and PG VOWEL SYSTEMS

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OE VOWEL SYSTEM

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Splitting of [a] / [a:] in Early OE PG [a] and [a:] were fronted and, in the process of fronting, split into several sounds. [a] > [æ] in closed syllables; [a] > [o, ã] before a nasal; [a] remained unchanged if it was followed by a back vowel in the next syllable.

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The tendency to assimilative vowel changes Under the influence of succeeding and preceding consonants some Early OE monophthongs developed into diphthongs. If a front vowel stood before a velar consonant there developed a short glide between them, as the organs of speech prepared themselves for the transition from one sound to another. The glide together with the original monophthong formed a diphthong.

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OE Breaking (fracture) - diphthongization of short vowels before certain consonant clusters. before clusters l, r, h + consonant a (æ) > ea Goth. alls – OE eall Goth. ahtau – OE eahta e > eo OHG. derk – OE deorc OHG. herza – OE heorte OHG. melcan – OE meolcan

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Front mutation (Palatal mutation, I-Umlaut) Fronting and raising of root vowels under the influence of [i], [j] in the following syllable. i /y < u Goth. fuljan – OE fyllan, OE mus-mys e < o Goth. dohtar – OE dehter, OE boc-bec æ < a Goth. saljan, ān – OE sellan, æniʒ ie < ea, eo OE eald – OE ieldra, ieldest

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Back mutation (Velar mutation, U-Umlaut) Diphthongization of root front vowels under the influence of back vowels in the following syllable. i > io OE silufr – siolufr (silver), OE hira -hiora (their) e > eo OE sifon – siofon, OE hefon - heofon (heaven) æ > ea OE cæru – cearu (care)

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Diphthongization due to initial palatal consonants Diphthongization of root vowels after the palatal consonants ʒ [g’], c [k’] and sc [sk’] e > ie OE ʒefan – ʒiefan (to give), OE ʒeldan -ʒieldan (to pay) o > eo OE scort – sceort (short) a > ea OE scacan – sceacan (to shake) Goth. scadus – OE sceadu (shade)

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Contraction Two vowels were contracted into one long vowel OE*slæhan>*sleahan > slēan (to slay) OE*sehan>*seahan > sēon (to see)

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Quantitative changes within the system of vowels Lengthening before fricatives (f, θ, s) due to the loss of nasals OE *onþar > OE oþer (other) OE *uns, ʒons, munþ > OE ūs (us), ʒōs (goose), mūþ (mouth) Loss of [χ] after a vowel OE * mæʒden > mǽden (a maiden) Lengthening in the final stressed position OE by, swa > OE bý, swā (as)

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Quantitative changes within the system of vowels Lengthening before certain clusters ld, nd, mb OE ald, cild, wild, wind – OE āld (old), cīld (child), wīld (wild), wīnd (wind) Shortening before other clusters OE wīfmann (wife), cēpte (kept) – OE wifmann, cepte

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The system of consonants in OE

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Splitting of velar consonants (Palatalization)

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Splitting of velar consonants (Palatalization) The velar consonants were palatalized before a front vowel (sometimes after front vowels) unless followed by a back vowel. OE cild [kild] > [k’ild] (before a front vowel), OE spræc (speech), but in sprecan (to speak)[k] was followed by a back vowel. The differences between velar and palatal consonants were not reflected in the spelling.

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Loss of consonants n, m were lost before the fricatives (x, f, s) Goth. fimf, uns - OE fīf (five), ūs (us) X was lost between vowels PG *fōhan > *fōan > OE fōn (to catch) ʒ was lost before the dentals (d, t, n) OE sæʒde > sæde (said) X was lost before sonorants OE hring, hnutu > OE ring, nute (ring, nut)

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Metathesis [mə́ʹtæθəsıs] Two sounds exchange their place There are two stages: 1) The vowel disappears and [r] becomes syllabic; 2) Eventually the vowel reappears on the other side of [r] *hros > hors (horse) OE þrida > *þrda > þirda (third) OE rinnan > *rnan > irnan (to run)

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Assibilation is the change of palatal consonants (not velar) into affricates and sibilants: g, k, sk change correspondingly into dʒ, tʃ, ʃ bryʒʒe – bridge, cild – child, scirt – shirt. Assibilation is the change of palatal consonants (not velar) into affricates and sibilants: g, k, sk change correspondingly into dʒ, tʃ, ʃ bryʒʒe – bridge, cild – child, scirt – shirt. Long consonants in the final position became short – hence the process of Shortening: mann – man (but manna)

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