Презентация, доклад Old English Pronouns


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Old English  Pronouns
 Выполнила
 Петривная Анастасия
 ПП/с-18-2-2Types of pronouns
 in Old English:
 1)Personal
 2)Possessive
 3)Demonstrative
 4)Interrogative
 5)Definite
Personal pronouns
 As in Gothic, there were singular, plural and dualPersonal pronounsPossessive pronouns
 This type is derived from the genitive case ofPossessive pronounsDemonstrative pronouns
 There were two demonstrative pronouns: sē, which could functionDemonstrative pronounsInterrogative pronouns
 The pronouns hwā ‘who’ and hwæt ‘what’ agreed withInterrogative pronounsDefinite pronouns
 There were the pronouns ᵹehwā ‘every’ (declined as theIndefinite pronouns
 The indefinite pronouns sum ‘some’ and ǣniᵹ ‘any’ wereNegative pronouns
 Included pronouns nān and nǣniᵹ (both with meaning ‘no’,Relative pronouns
 They included the most popular pronoun þe and



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Old English Pronouns Выполнила Петривная Анастасия ПП/с-18-2-2


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Types of pronouns in Old English: 1)Personal 2)Possessive 3)Demonstrative 4)Interrogative 5)Definite 6)Indefinite 7)Negative 8)Relative

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Personal pronouns As in Gothic, there were singular, plural and dual pronouns (only for the 1st and 2nd persons). They could be accompanied by the pronoun self (seolf, sylf) (sometimes it was used without a personal pronoun). They had four cases: Nominative, Genitive, Dative, and Accusative. The Genitive case gave the forms of the Modern English possessive pronouns.

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Personal pronouns

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Possessive pronouns This type is derived from the genitive case of the personal pronouns. There were two types of declension: pronouns mīn, þīn, ūre, ēower, uncer, and incer decline like strong adjectives, showing the case and gender corresponding to that of the noun which they described; pronouns his, hire, and hiera were unchanged. Also, there were the reflexive pronoun sīn, which was also declined as a strong adjective. After the words, mīn, þīn, sīn, ūre, ēower, uncer, incer, his, hire, and hira you will have weak adjective declensions.

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Possessive pronouns

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Demonstrative pronouns There were two demonstrative pronouns: sē, which could function as both 'the' or 'that', and þes for 'this'. Modern English 'that' descends from the neuter nominative/accusative form, and 'the' from the plural nominative/accusative form. The feminine nominative form was probably the source of Modern English 'she’.

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Demonstrative pronouns

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Interrogative pronouns The pronouns hwā ‘who’ and hwæt ‘what’ agreed with the gender of the noun to which they refered, whether masculine/feminine, or neuter. Since there's only singular, that serves for the plural as well. The interrogative hwilc ‘which of many’ and hwæðer ‘which of two’ were declined as strong adjectives.

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Interrogative pronouns

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Definite pronouns There were the pronouns ᵹehwā ‘every’ (declined as the interrogative hwā), ᵹehwilc ‘each’, ᵹehwæt - ‘anything’ or ‘everything’(declined just the interrogate pronoun hwæt). ǣþᵹer ‘either’, ǣlc ‘each’, swilc ‘such’ (declined as strong adjective), sē ilca ‘the same’ (declined as a weak adjective).

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Indefinite pronouns The indefinite pronouns sum ‘some’ and ǣniᵹ ‘any’ were declined like a strong adjectives.

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Negative pronouns Included pronouns nān and nǣniᵹ (both with meaning ‘no’, ‘none’)and declined as strong adjectives.

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Relative pronouns They included the most popular pronoun þe and sēþe, which consisted of the demonstrative sē and relative þe (sē changed according to gender, number, and case; þe remained unchanged). The pronoun sē itself was also used as a relative pronoun (however, it could be translated as a demonstrative or relative pronoun).


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