Презентация, доклад Old English Pronouns
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Слайды и текст этой презентации
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Types of pronouns
in Old English:
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As in Gothic, there were singular, plural and dual pronouns (only for the 1st and 2nd persons). They could be accompanied by the pronoun self (seolf, sylf) (sometimes it was used without a personal pronoun). They had four cases: Nominative, Genitive, Dative, and Accusative. The Genitive case gave the forms of the Modern English possessive pronouns.
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This type is derived from the genitive case of the personal pronouns.
There were two types of declension: pronouns mīn, þīn, ūre, ēower, uncer, and incer decline like strong adjectives, showing the case and gender corresponding to that of the noun which they described; pronouns his, hire, and hiera were unchanged. Also, there were the reflexive pronoun sīn, which was also declined as a strong adjective.
After the words, mīn, þīn, sīn, ūre, ēower, uncer, incer, his, hire, and hira you will have weak adjective declensions.
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There were two demonstrative pronouns: sē, which could function as both 'the' or 'that', and þes for 'this'.
Modern English 'that' descends from the neuter nominative/accusative form, and 'the' from the plural nominative/accusative form. The feminine nominative form was probably the source of Modern English 'she’.
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The pronouns hwā ‘who’ and hwæt ‘what’ agreed with the gender of the noun to which they refered, whether masculine/feminine, or neuter. Since there's only singular, that serves for the plural as well.
The interrogative hwilc ‘which of many’ and hwæðer ‘which of two’ were declined as strong adjectives.
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There were the pronouns ᵹehwā ‘every’ (declined as the interrogative hwā), ᵹehwilc ‘each’, ᵹehwæt - ‘anything’ or ‘everything’(declined just the interrogate pronoun hwæt).
ǣþᵹer ‘either’, ǣlc ‘each’, swilc ‘such’ (declined as strong adjective), sē ilca ‘the same’ (declined as a weak adjective).
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The indefinite pronouns sum ‘some’ and ǣniᵹ ‘any’ were declined like a strong adjectives.
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Included pronouns nān and nǣniᵹ (both with meaning ‘no’, ‘none’)and declined as strong adjectives.
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They included the most popular pronoun þe and
sēþe, which consisted of the demonstrative sē and relative þe (sē changed according to gender, number, and case; þe remained unchanged). The pronoun sē itself was also used as a relative pronoun (however, it could be translated as a demonstrative or relative pronoun).