Презентация, доклад IE350 Alternative Energy Course


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IE350 Alternative Energy Course Lecture # 2 Energy Outlook: World, USA, Armenia

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Energy vs. Power


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Units 1 1 Joule - amount of energy required to exert a force of one newton for a distance of one meter. Power = Energy / Time; P=E/t If it is generated or spent during 1 second, then the generator or consumer has the power capacity of 1 watt: 1watt = 1Joule/1second; W=J/s

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Units 2 E = P•t 1000W = 1kW of power capacity. 1kW • 60 seconds • 60 minutes = 1 kWh of energy. = 3.6 million Joules

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Units 3 Calorie (cal) = heat to increase by 1°C the 1 gram of water. Joule (J): - energy required to exert a force of one newton for a distance of one meter. - The work required to move an electric charge of one coulomb through an electrical potential difference of one volt; or one coulomb volt, with the symbol C·V. - The work done to produce power of one watt continuously for one second; or one watt second (compare kilowatt-hour), with the symbol W·s. 1 kWh = 1000 W · 3600 S = 3.6 · 106 J (W·s) = 3.6 MJ. 1 cal ≈ 4.184 Joules BTU = British Thermal Unit = amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. 143 BTU is required to melt a pound of ice. 1 BTU ≡ 1054.35 Joules ≈ 1/3600 kilowatt hour. MMBTU = 1 000 000 BTU, here M = Mille = 1000 (not Mega, every where else M = Mega = 1 000 000) We will frequently use: Exajoule (EJ) = 1018 J, 1 EJ = 277.[7] billion kWh; Quad = quadrillion BTU = 1015 BTU, 1 EJ ≈ 1 Quad https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orders_of_magnitude_(energy)

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Your homework -5 for capacity mismatch related unclear calculation. -5 incorrect units used. -5 total for the column “Time used per month, h” meaningless. -5 no percentages calculated. -3 no excel functions used or no excel used. -3 formatting - unnecessary or insufficient decimals. -3 not compared with real bill. -2 for capacity mismatch related representation. Use total power capacity for each line. -2 some missing important items. e.g. fridge. -2 power rating for some items unrealistic. -2 times for some items unrealistic – hence mismatch with the real paid bill. -2 tariff rating either incorrect and or unrealistically uniform -2 calculation unclear

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1 The history of human energy consumption How much energy do we need? Where do we spend energy? Home: heat; light; electricity (homework). Industry: agriculture manufacturing services infrastructure, transportation. Industrial Revolution and Energy.

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The Coming Oil Crisis

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Increasing demand! In 2008, total worldwide energy consumption was 474 exajoules (474×1018 J=132,000 TWh). This is equivalent to an average energy consumption rate of 15 terawatts (1.504×1013 W).

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The potential for renewable energy solar energy >1600 EJ (444,000 TWh), wind power 600 EJ (167,000 TWh), geothermal energy 500 EJ (139,000 TWh), biomass 250 EJ (70,000 TWh), hydropower 50 EJ (14,000 TWh) ocean energy 1 EJ (280 TWh).

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Rate of world energy usage in terawatts (TW), 1965–2005 (all types of energy)

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GDP and energy consumption in Japan

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Energy intensity of different economies

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The history of human energy consumption

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U.S. Primary Energy Consumption by Source and Sector, 2009. From the U.S. Energy Information Administration (Department of Energy).

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http://www.iea.org/etp/explore/

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Armenia’s Energy Consumption, 2010 Electric power: 5 500 MWh Thermal Energy: 10 000 MWh Transportation: 28 000 MWh (Thermal and transport in equivalent of primary energy calorific content)

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Today’s energy challenge Rising demand

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Electrical Energy Production, World, 18000 Bln KWh

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Average Solar Radiation per Day

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Homework Calculate how many times more energy annually will need a. China, b. mankind, if the average world consumption rate per capita is the same as in the USA.


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